Reported by (10)
Involvement of prolactin in the regulation of plasma calcium levels in the salamander, Cynops pyrrhogaster
1991, General and Comparative Endocrinology
i salamanders,Cynopus pyrrhogaster, parathyroidectomy (PTX) produced a significant decrease in plasma calcium concentration. Animals recovered from hypocalcemia 15 days after surgery if the pituitary gland remained intact. After PTX, no significant changes in plasma sodium concentration were observed. Experiments were then performed to obtain direct evidence that endogenous prolactin (PRL) is involved in this recovery process. The recovery of calcium levels after PTX was prevented by the administration of a salamander PRL antiserum. In salamanders deprived of pituitary and parathyroid glands, no recovery from hypocalcemia was observed. Administration of salamander or sheep PRL to salamanders with parathyroid hypophysectomization significantly increased blood calcium levels. After PTX, the concentration of immunoassayed PRL in the blood increased to 10 times the value in sham-operated animals. These results indicate the involvement of PRL in calcium homeostasis in parathyroid hormone-deficient salamanders.
The incidence of chronic hypocalcemia after parathyroidectomy in the green frog, Rana clamitans
1990, General and Comparative Endocrinology
Plasma calcium concentrations of parathyroidectomized male specimens of green grog,screaming seed, were followed up for 44 or 62 weeks. Plasma levels of total and ionized calcium in parathyroidectomized animals decreased by 31-53% at 3 days, continuing to decrease to ca. 50% of preoperative levels at weeks 3-9 and remained at these low levels throughout the experiments. Plasma levels of sodium, pH and hematocrit remained unchanged. Chronic hypocalcemia resulted in tetanic seizures in all long-term parathyroidectomized animals and death in most long-term parathyroidectomized animals. Thus, in the green frog, the presence of the parathyroid gland is necessary to maintain blood calcium levels and survive.
Effects of hypophysectomy and prolactin on calcium regulation in the red-spotted salamander, Notophthalmus viridescens
1984, General and Comparative Endocrinology
Hypophysectomized red spot salamanders showed hyponatremia but not hypocalcemia. Parathyroidectomy and a combination of hypophysectomy and parathyroidectomy caused a fall in plasma calcium levels, but control levels were restored within 12 days. Injections of ovine prolactin had no effect on plasma calcium or sodium levels in sham-operated, parathyroidectomized salamanders conditioned in tap water or 0.6% sodium chloride solution containing 10 meq of calcium/liter. These data indicate that the pituitary is not involved in the hypercalcemic regulation of the red-spotted salamander.
Calcium metabolism in amphibians
1984, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Physiology
Effect of parathyroidectomy on plasma calcium levels in the seal salamander, Desmognathus monticola
1983, General and Comparative Endocrinology
Your parathyroid glandsDesmognathus monticolathey are located in the subcutaneous connective tissue of the neck. Although they are smaller than the previously described parathyroid glands, their histological structure is similar. Parathyroidectomy caused a decrease in plasma calcium concentrations within 4 days after surgery. However, on days 12 and 21, plasma calcium levels of parathyroidectomized animals did not differ significantly from operated animals. Thus, the parathyroid gland of this species contains a hypercalcemic principle, but recovery from hypocalcemia suggests that some hypercalcemic mechanism outside the parathyroid system must be involved in calcium homeostasis.
The effects of the parathyroid and pituitary on calcium and sodium balance in Desmognathus quadramaculatus, the black-bellied dark salamander
1983, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology -- Part B: Biochemistry and
1. Serum calcium and sodium were determined inDesmognathus quadramaculatus13 and 19 days after hypophysectomy (HYPX), parathyroidectomy (PTX), HYPX-PTX or SHAM procedures.
2. Plasma sodium decreased from 94 to 69 mEq/1 in HYPX and to 78 mEq/1 in prolactin (PROL) with HYPX injection 13 days after surgery. After 19 days, levels of SHAM-HYPX, HYPX and HYPX-PROL were 92, 69 and 91 mEq/1, respectively.
3. Plasma sodium was not altered by PTX, but HYPX-PTX sodium levels were reduced to 76 mEq/l at 19 days.
4. Plasma calcium decreased from 3.6 to 2.7 mEq/1 after 13 days in HYPX, while HYPX + PROL animals had 3.1 mEq/1 of plasma calcium. After 19 days, the HYPX calcium level was 2.8 mEq/1, while the HYPX + PROL was 3.6 mEq/1.
5. PTX reduced calcium at 13 days to 2.8 mEq/l, but no difference was seen at 19 days. HYPX-PTX reduced calcium to 3.1 mEq/l at 19 days, but no difference was seen at 13 days.
6. Data show that in this multi-toothed salamander, calcium levels are controlled by both pituitary and parathyroid factors, whereas only the pituitary has significant effects on plasma sodium. This follows the same pattern seen in Salamandridae. Prolactin conserves both sodium and calcium in adults of this semiaquatic species.
Selected articles (6)
Hydrological effects of paddy improvement and abandonment on amphibian populations. long-term trends of the Japanese brown frog, Rana japonica
Biological Conservation, bond 219, 2018, s. 96-104
In rice fields, the cultivated area itself can play a significant role as a habitat for wetland organisms. Many previous studies have shown a negative impact of agricultural intensification and abandonment on the biodiversity of wetland ecosystems. However, there is still verification of the direct impact of changes in the aquatic environment resulting from the improvement and abandonment of rice paddies. Here, we investigate the effects of intensification and abandonment on the remaining wetland area in rice paddies during fallow, as well as the factors leading to population decline in the Japanese brown frog (japanese seed), using data from long-term monitoring of egg mass counts at various sites. To quantify spatial and temporal variation in water-saturated areas in rice fields where frogs spawn in early spring, we used infrared bands from Landsat images. Both the improvements and the abandonment of the rice fields affectedJapanese R.populations by reducing wetland areas in fields. Furthermore, seed population size was positively correlated with the surrounding forest area. Our results suggest that conservation in wetlands requires adequate water management in the growing area, as well as in other landscape elements that serve as secondary habitats.
Detecting frog call activity using lightweight CNN with multiview spectrogram: a case study of the tinker frog Kroombit
Machine learning with apps, link 7, 2022, article 100202
Frogs play an important role in ecological systems and frog species across the world are threatened and in decline. Therefore, it is valuable to estimate the seed stock of an intelligent computer system. Due to the success of deep learning (DL) in various pattern recognition tasks, previous studies have used DL-based methods to analyze frog calls. However, the performance of DL-based systems is heavily influenced by their input (feature representation). In this study, we developed a frog call activity detection system for continuous field recordings using a lightweight convolutional neural network (CNN) with multiview spectrograms. More specifically, a sliding window is first applied to continuous recordings to capture fixed-length audio segments. Background noise is then filtered out. A multi-view spectrogram is then used to characterize these segments, which have more discriminative information than a single-view spectrogram. Finally, a lightweight CNN model is used to detect double-loss seed call activity, where different training and testing sets are used to validate the robustness of the model. Our experimental results indicate that the highest F1 macro score was 99.6±0.2 and 96.4±2.0 using 2016 and 2017 as train data, respectively, where CNN-GAP is used as a multiprojection spectrogram model as input.
Epigenetic regulation of bone turnover by natural compounds
Pharmacological Research, Volume 147, 2019, Article 104350
Osteoporosis and osteopenia affect more than 54 million Americans, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alterations in bone remodeling are characteristic of osteoporosis and, therefore, the development of new therapies to prevent or treat bone diseases will be clinically important and will improve the quality of life of these patients. Bone remodeling involves the removal of old bone by osteoclasts and the formation of new bone by osteoblasts. This process is closely related and essential to maintain bone strength and integrity. Since the osteoclast is the only cell capable of bone resorption, the development of drugs to treat bone disorders has a primary focus on reducing osteoclastic differentiation, maturation and bone resorption mechanisms, and there are few treatments that actually increase bone formation. Evidence from observational, experimental, and clinical studies shows a positive relationship between natural compounds and improved markers of bone health. While many natural extracts and compounds have beneficial effects on bone, only resveratrol, sulforaphane, specific phenolic acids, and anthocyanins have been shown to increase bone formation and decrease resorption through their effects on the bone epigenome. Each of these compounds alters specific aspects of the bone epigenome to increase osteoblast differentiation, reduce osteoblast apoptosis, increase bone mineralization, and reduce osteoclast differentiation and function. This review focuses on these specific natural compounds and their epigenetic regulation of bone turnover.
FGF, BMP and RA signaling is sufficient to induce full tip regeneration of non-regenerative wounds in Ambystoma mexicanum tips
Developmental Biology, Volume 451, Issue 2, 2019, pp. 146-157
Some organisms, like the Mexican axolotl, have the ability to regenerate complex biological structures throughout their lives. Which molecular pathways are sufficient to induce a complete endogenous regenerative response in injured tissue is an important question that remains unanswered. Using a gain-of-function regeneration analysis known as the Accessory Limb Model (ALM), we and others have begun to identify the molecular underpinnings of the three key requirements for limb regeneration. injury, neurotrophic signaling, and pattern induction of cells that maintain location memory. We have previously shown that treatment of Mexican axolotls with exogenous retinoic acid (RA) is sufficient to induce the formation of complete limb structures from blastomas generated by ablation of a bundle of nerves at a wound site located in the anterior part of the limb. Here we show that these ectopic structures are able to regenerate and induce new patterns when transplanted into new previously located lesions. We also found that the expressionAlx4cai eSssExpression is increased in these anterior blastomas but not in mature anterior tissue, supporting the hypothesis that RA treatment subsequently degrades blastoma tissue. Based on these and previous observations, we used the ALM trial to test the hypothesis that a complete regenerative response can be generated by treating superficial anterior cingulate wounds with a specific combination of growth factors at defined developmental stages. Our data show that limb ulcers initially treated with a combination of FGF-2, FGF-8 and BMP-2, followed by RA treatment of the resulting blastema in the mid-eye stage, will result in limbs with proximal/distal and anterior injury. /previous complete. hindlimb axes. Minimal nerve signal requirements and a difference in position are thus achieved using this particular combination of signal molecules.
Live images of axolotl digit regeneration reveal spatiotemporal choreography of different pools of ancestral connective tissue
Development Cell, Volume 39, Issue 4, 2016, pp. 411-423
Connective tissue - skeleton, dermis, pericytes, fascia - is an important cellular source for patterned skeletal regeneration during axolotl appendage regeneration. This complexity made it difficult to identify the cells that regenerate skeletal tissue. The inability to identify these cells has hindered the mechanistic understanding of blastema formation. By tracking cells during fingertip regeneration using transgenic cerebral axolotls, we show that cells from each connective tissue compartment have different spatial and temporal profiles of proliferation, migration and differentiation. Chondrocytes proliferate but do not migrate during regeneration. Instead, pericytes proliferate, then migrate to the blastoma and give rise exclusively to pericytes. Periskeletal cells and fibroblasts contribute to the volume of finger blast cells and reach different destinations according to successive waves of migration that choreograph their proximal-distal and tissue contributions. We further show that platelet-derived growth factor signaling is a potent inducer of fibroblast migration, required to form the blastema.
Carotenoid ingestion early in life induces ontogenetic color changes and dynamic color changes in adulthood
Animal Behavior, binding 187, 2022, s. 121-135
Carotenoids play an important role as one of the most abundant pigments in animals. Carotenoid-based coloration is responsible for impressive sexual and naturally selected color adaptations. Many anurans (frogs and toads) change body color slowly and permanently between life stages (ontogenetic color change) or quickly and temporarily within minutes or hours (dynamic color change). We investigated the ontogenetic color change from orange to green in Wallace's flying frog,Rhacophorus nigropalmatusand investigated the effect of dietary carotenoids on color change during postmetamorphic development. At 9 months of age, while all individuals still had an orange-red body color, a 20-week feeding experiment was conducted feeding the frogs no carotenoid supplements or dietary carotenoids once or four times a week. A carotenoid-rich diet resulted in a more rapid increase in green color, as well as higher levels of green and carotenoid coloration on the back. Less or no carotenoid supplementation led to an increase in UV-blue color, contributing to a dull turquoise appearance often seen in captive and captive-bred anurans. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Wallace's flying frogs also perform dynamic color changes. We tested dynamic changes induced by 2-minute touch manipulation or 1-hour alternating dark and light conditions. Our results show that a carotenoid-rich diet facilitates a rapid and reversible change in body color in response to a tactile stressor, an adaptation absent in carotenoid-depleted frogs. Dynamic color changes were also observed in response to changes in light conditions, apparently camouflaging individuals and providing UV protection. The ontogenetic and dynamic alterations of pigmentation are discussed in relation to the mechanism and as a possible strategy to avoid predation at different life stages and in different environments.
Copyright © 1978 Published by Elsevier Inc.
What is the function of the parathyroid gland? ›
Function of the parathyroid glands
Parathyroid glands produce parathyroid hormone, which plays a key role in the regulation of calcium levels in the blood. Precise calcium levels are important in the human body, since small changes can cause muscle and nerve problems.
The parathyroid glands' function is to maintain serum calcium homeostasis through synthesis and release of PTH. At the bone, PTH inhibits osteoblast activity and stimulates osteoclast activity leading to bone breakdown and calcium release.How does parathyroid hormone increase blood calcium levels? ›
This hormone raises calcium levels by releasing calcium from your bones, increasing the amount of calcium absorbed from your small intestine and decreasing the amount of calcium lost in urine. When blood-calcium levels are too high, the parathyroid glands produce less parathyroid hormone.Where are the parathyroid glands located and what is its function? ›
The parathyroid glands are four nodular structures, typically located on the dorsum of the thyroid at each of its four poles. These glands monitor the serum calcium level and secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) when it is low.  PTH is essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis.What is the function of the parathyroid gland quizlet? ›
The major function of the parathyroid glands is to maintain the body's calcium levels and phosphorus.What is the function of parathyroid hormone quizlet? ›
PTH increases serum calcium by increasing bone resorption of calcium into blood (this requires vitamin D).What are two functions of parathyroid hormone? ›
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone your parathyroid glands release to control calcium levels in your blood. It also controls phosphorus and vitamin D levels. If your body has too much or too little parathyroid hormone, it can cause symptoms related to abnormal blood calcium levels.What is the role of parathyroid and calcitonin hormone in regulating the calcium level? ›
Parathyroid hormone is responsible for stimulating the enzyme that transforms vitamin D your skin makes from sun exposure into calcitriol. Calcitonin decreases calcium levels by blocking the breakdown of bone calcium and by preventing your kidneys from reabsorbing calcium.What happens to calcium when the parathyroid gland is not functioning properly? ›
Parathyroid disorders lead to abnormal levels of calcium in the blood that can cause brittle bones, kidney stones, fatigue, weakness, and other problems.What is the relationship between calcium vitamin D and parathyroid hormone? ›
When vitamin D level is low, the absorption of calcium in the intestines becomes less, which then causes the level of calcium in the blood to go down. As a consequence the parathyroid glands become more active and produce more PTH that causes calcium to come out of the bones, therefore weakening the bones.
How is calcium level regulated in the blood? ›
Calcium homeostasis is maintained by actions of hormones that regulate calcium transport in the gut, kidneys, and bone. The 3 primary hormones are parathyroid hormone (PTH) 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (Vitamin D3), and calcitonin.What are the three functions of the parathyroid gland? ›
That's all the parathyroid glands do! Through the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), these four small glands regulate how much calcium is absorbed from our diet, how much calcium is secreted by our kidneys, and how much calcium is stored in our bones.What does the parathyroid hormone control the level of? ›
PTH controls the level of calcium in the blood. Calcium is a mineral that keeps your bones and teeth healthy and strong. It's also essential for the proper functioning of your nerves, muscles, and heart. If calcium blood levels are too low, your parathyroid glands will release PTH into the blood.What do parathyroid hormone and calcitonin both function to regulate? ›
Why Are Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormones Important? Calcitonin and PTH help regulate the body's calcium levels, but each functions in a different way. It is important to note that calcitonin is weaker than PTH.How does the thyroid and parathyroid regulate the calcium concentration of the blood? ›
How do hormones from the thyroid and parathyroid regulate the calcium concentration of the blood? Calcitonin raises the blood calcium and parathormone lowers the blood calcium level.What happens if the parathyroid doesn t produce enough of its hormone? ›
The low production of PTH in hypoparathyroidism leads to abnormally low calcium levels in the blood and an increase of phosphorus in the blood. Supplements to bring calcium and phosphorus levels into a normal range treat the condition.What is the relationship between vitamin D and calcium levels? ›
Optimal vitamin D levels are necessary to increase the efficiency of calcium absorption. Without adequate vitamin D, the body absorbs no more than 10% to 15% of dietary calcium. In the vitamin D–sufficient state, the intestinal calcium absorption increases to 30% to 40% [1••].Does parathyroid hormone affect vitamin D levels? ›
The association between parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D may be an important determinant of bone remodeling, mainly in the elderly. A negative and significant correlation was found between PTH and 25(OH)D levels in the present study.Does parathyroid activate vitamin D? ›
Vitamin D can either be made by exposure to sunlight or absorbed in food. PTH then activates vitamin D, which helps the body absorb more calcium from food.How is calcium level in the blood regulated by the parathyroid quizlet? ›
Calcium levels in the blood are regulated by: Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels in the blood and calcitonin decreases blood calcium levels in the blood.
Can you function without a parathyroid? ›
Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in your blood. Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in your bones. You can easily live with one (or even 1/2) parathyroid gland. Removing all 4 parathyroid glands will cause very bad symptoms of too little calcium (hypOparathyroidism).What happens to overall body function if the parathyroid glands are removed? ›
After parathyroid glands are removed, the remaining parathyroid glands may take some time to work properly again. This, along with uptake of calcium into bones, can lead to low levels of calcium — a condition called hypocalcemia. You may have of numbness, tingling or cramping if your calcium level gets too low.What happens when parathyroid hormone levels increase in the body? ›
Too much PTH causes calcium levels in your blood to rise too high, which can lead to health problems such as bone thinning and kidney stones. Doctors usually catch primary hyperparathyroidism early through routine blood tests, before serious problems occur.What are the symptoms of a bad parathyroid? ›
- Low energy.
- Feeling tired (fatigue)
- Loss of appetite.
- Muscle weakness.
- Bone or joint pain.
- Anxiety or depression.
- Kidney stones.
Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in your blood. Parathyroid glands control the amount of calcium in your bones. You can easily live with one (or even 1/2) parathyroid gland. Removing all 4 parathyroid glands will cause very bad symptoms of too little calcium (hypOparathyroidism).What problems can parathyroid cause? ›
Excess parathyroid hormone can lead to negative effects on the body such as osteoporosis which can lead to fractures, kidney stones, decreased kidney function, heart disease, pancreatitis, increased acid secretion in the stomach and ulcers.What is the function of parathyroid gland and calcitonin? ›
Parathyroid hormone is responsible for stimulating the enzyme that transforms vitamin D your skin makes from sun exposure into calcitriol. Calcitonin decreases calcium levels by blocking the breakdown of bone calcium and by preventing your kidneys from reabsorbing calcium.What is the most common parathyroid condition? ›
Hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is the most common type of parathyroid disease. In HPT, one or more glands are overactive. As a result, the glands make too much PTH.What organs does the parathyroid affect? ›
Organ Systems Involved
Parathyroid hormone is directly involved in the bones, kidneys, and small intestine. In the bones, PTH stimulates the release of calcium in an indirect process through osteoclasts which ultimately leads to the resorption of the bones.
Parathyroid disease and hyperparathyroidism are associated with weight gain.
What happens if parathyroid is removed? ›
After parathyroid glands are removed, the remaining parathyroid glands may take some time to work properly again. This, along with uptake of calcium into bones, can lead to low levels of calcium — a condition called hypocalcemia. You may have of numbness, tingling or cramping if your calcium level gets too low.What happens if you don't treat parathyroid? ›
As a result, the gland makes too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). Too much PTH causes calcium levels in your blood to rise too high, which can lead to health problems such as bone thinning and kidney stones.Can you remove the thyroid without removing the parathyroid? ›
Part of the art of thyroid cancer surgery is to removed the thyroid gland either total or in part but spare all of the parathyroid glands. Normal parathyroid glands have quite predictable locations.What is the best treatment for parathyroid? ›
Treatment options for the parathyroid disease include monitoring, medication, dietary supplements, and surgery. Surgery is the most effective option to treat the disease. It involves removing overactive parathyroid glands and can be performed either in a minimally invasive way or by a standard neck exploration.How does parathyroid affect behavior? ›
Likewise, too much parathyroid hormone causes too high a calcium level--and this can make a person feel run down, cause them to sleep poorly, make them more irritable than usual, and even cause a decrease in memory.Should you take vitamin D if you have hyperparathyroidism? ›
If it is determined that you suffer from hyperparathyroid disease and you have parathyroid surgery, it is important that you take calcium and vitamin D supplements to help replenish your calcium stores in your bones.